The productivity costs of obesity have been well-documented in a variety of studies, with widespread consensus that such costs are substantial, but with Econmic analysis of obesity differences in magnitude between the individual estimates. This is usually done by calculating the level of compensation for the relevant workers either from survey data or BLS averages.
Overall correlations between obesity and the outcome variables were statistically significant and in the expected directions. However, the study includes physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness measures as explanatory variables, which are likely to mediate effects of obesity, as shown in other studies.
In addition, the per capita number of full-service restaurants rose by 35 percent in the same period. But in view of the value of time that must be devoted to shopping and cooking, as compared to the high-calorie, low-cost, mass-production meals available at ever-increasingly convenient locations with ever diminishing travel and waiting timethe fast-food option appears to make good economic, if not health, sense.
Ricci and Chee find that obese workers are more likely to have positive LPT than their counterparts, and on average have more of it. The authors do parallel analyses in two datasets: This result is equivalent to one QALY lost for every 20 people who live one year with obesity.
Results from the model demonstrate substantial increases in disease risk with increasing BMI. BMI is most often derived from data based on self-reported height and weight.
The authors then look at total lost productive time LPT the sum of absenteeism and presenteeismand measure the effects of obesity controlling for a list of covariates. Although this study does not estimate the fraction of these diabetes costs that are attributable to obesity, other evidence suggests it may be substantial see above.
Less well known is that obesity and its attendant sedentary lifestyle result inpremature deaths annually, a toll second only to the early mortality figure attributed to smoking. Certain authors, such as Burton et al 25 use only longer periods of health-related work absence, defined as short-term disability, while others use either paid time off for sick leave or self-reported absence due to illness.
Two recent studies use cohorts drawn from managed care organizations to estimate relative costs for the obese and overweight compared to the nonoverweight. The authors rely on comprehensive data collected in recent years in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone surveys conducted by state health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control.
Their analysis shows that more time devoted to work and less time devoted to the labor-intensive activity of food preparation in the home favors the low cost and convenience of fast food and prepared food.
In addition to educational attainment and grade progression, obesity has also been shown to correlate with school attendance. Clean indoor air regulations the restricting of smoking in restaurants, bars, public buildings, and the like meanwhile have taken effect in areas that now include 42 percent of the population and likewise are believed to contribute to the decline of smoking.
This amount includes only the direct productivity costs of absenteeism that the employee is paid while not at work ; it does not account for any secondary effects on training, morale, or other network effects.
Concurrently, reduced time available for active leisure has reduced the burning of calories. The rate of growth in spending among the obese group was much higher than overall per capita spending growth.
Notably, the papers reviewed here provide a reasonably wide range of estimates for the total indirect costs of obesity. Obese white females had a 0. No economic cost estimate is assigned to greenhouse gas emissions due to obesity.
They conclude that increased mortality may lower costs somewhat, though inclusion of this factor does not affect the qualitative conclusion that such costs are likely substantial. Across all payers, comparison of the obese to healthy-weight individuals shows medical spending that is The obesity penalty of 16% thus corresponds to almost three years of education—the same as a university bachelor’s degree.
The Economics Of Childhood Obesity. John Cawley ([email protected]) is an associate professor in the Department of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. McKinsey Global Institute Overcoming obesity: An initial economic analysis Richard Dobbs Corinne Sawers Fraser Thompson James Manyika Jonathan Woetzel.
Economics and Obesity: Causes and Solutions Essay Contest Winner.
Michael Graham | Public Affairs Intern the cost-benefit analysis of these taxes would always prove to be beneficial to the income disadvantaged. Conclusions. When the tantalizing but ultimately misleading potential causes of obesity in America are.
In addition to its serious health consequences, obesity has real economic costs that affect all of us. The estimated annual health care costs of obesity-related illness are a staggering $ billion or nearly 21% of annual medical spending in the United States.
1 Childhood obesity alone is responsible for $14 billion in direct medical costs. Obesity-related. The enormity of this economic burden and the huge toll that excess weight takes on health and well-being are beginning to raise global political awareness that individuals, communities, states, nations, and international organizations must do more to stem the rising tide of obesity.Download