For more information on Charlevoix, click here. It took Anza about 74 days to do this initial reconnaissance trip to establish a land route into California. This last expedition entailed over battles, including the surrender of Mexico City in Local trade between Indian tribal groups enabled them to acquire seasonings such as salt, or foodstuffs Juan bautista de anza essay other goods that might be rare in certain locales, such as flint or obsidian for making spear and arrow points.
They essentially grew and multiplied as feral animals, doubling roughly every two years. From this place we have seen at our right the estuary which runs from the port of San Francisco. Land grants[ edit ] Before Alta California became a part of the Mexican state, about 30 Spanish land grants had already been deeded in all of Alta California to a few friends and family of the Alta California Governors.
For more information on, Cordoba, click here. The Spanish were desirous of reinforcing their presence in Alta California as a buffer against Russian colonization of the Americas advancing from the north, and possibly establish a harbor that would give shelter to Spanish ships.
The Yuma Crossing was closed for Spanish traffic and it would stay closed until about California continued to be a Juan bautista de anza essay populated and isolated country. Approximately half the cost of settling Alta California was borne by donations and half by funds from the Spanish crown.
The approximately surviving cattle and an unknown number of horses many of each were lost or eaten along the way started the cattle and horse raising industry in California.
The Bourbon King Charles III of Spain established missions and other outposts in Alta California out of fear that the territory would be claimed by the British, who not only had 13 colonies on the East Coastbut also several islands in the Caribbean, and had recently taken over Canada from the French.
Mexican period to [ edit ] Mexico in Chief Cuerno Verdefor whom Greenhorn Creek is named, and many other leaders of the Comanche were killed. They built a smaller boat from the wreckage and sailed to Acapulco, Mexico, charting the coastline all the while. Nearly all of these were adult males and a majority lived in central and northern California from Monterey north to Sonoma and east to the Sierra Nevada foothills.
Spain and Britain were the only colonial powers left. Different tribes of Native Americans lived in the area that is now California for an estimated 13, to 15, years.
The territorial capital remained in Monterey, Californiawith a governor as executive official.
In addition, Alta California had a declining Mission system as the Mission Indian population in Alta California continued to rapidly decrease. He also explored the Paraguay River in South America. He helped conquer Cuba in and led a Spanish royal expedition to North America leaving Spain in He was appointed the Viceroy of India by King Emmanuel in For more information on La Salle, click here.
A few soldiers and friars financed by the Church and State would form the backbone of the proposed settlement of California. The only expeditions anywhere close to the Central Valley and Sierras were the rare forays by soldiers undertaken to recover runaway Indians who had escaped from the Missions.
The contingent coming by sea encountered the south flowing California Current and strong head winds, and were still straggling in three months after they set sail. A dietary staple for most Indian tribes in interior California was acornswhich were dried, shelled, ground to flour, soaked in water to leach out their tanninand cooked.
Although the Catholic church bestowed sainthood on Serra in for his missionary work, his cruelty and the tremendously negative effect he had on Native Americans have made him a very controversial saint to many people. A few foreign colonists were accepted if they accepted Spanish citizenship and joined the Catholic Faith.
Nearly all the missions in Baja California were established by members of the Jesuit order supported by a few soldiers.
The expedition returned to San Diego on January 24, In the Spanish colonial period many of these grants were later turned into Ranchos. For more information on Coronado, click here. Cabrillo was the first European explorer of the Californian coast.
Inthe Spanish established two combination missions and pueblos at the Yuma Crossing: He tried to start a settlement in the southern Mississippi River Valley, but the venture ended in disaster.
De Niza survived and eventually was in charge of his Franciscan order Mojave and Sororan deserts block easy land travel to California. Most of the crew died from scurvy a lack of vitamin C. The Cabrillo expedition depicted the Indians as living at a subsistence level, typically located in small rancherias of extended family groups of to people.
This was approved by the King of Spain and on January 8,with 3 padres, 20 soldiers, 11 servants, 35 mules, 65 cattle, and horses, Anza set forth from Tubac Presidiosouth of present-day Tucson, Arizona.
To encourage settlement of the territory, large land grants were given to retired soldiers and colonists.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Juan Bautista de Anza Bezerra Nieto (July 6/7, – December 19, ) was a New-Spanish explorer of Basque descent, and Governor of New Mexico for the Spanish Crown.
The history of California can be divided into: the Native American period; European exploration period from to ; the Spanish colonial period, to ; the Mexican period, to ; and United States statehood, from September 9, (in Compromise of ) which continues to this present day.
California was settled from the North by successive waves of arrivals during the. Our Work. The national parks are here for all of us, a truly American idea dependent on the support of people like you.
The National Park Foundation works in the parks you love to protect them for the next generation. Learn more about our important work. DE ANZA, JUAN BAUTISTA Captain Juan Bautista de Anza () was a Mexican-born trailblazer and explorer.
He was the first person of European descent to establish an overland trail from Mexico to the northern Pacific coast of California (then called New Albion). Captain Juan Bautista de Anza () was a Mexican-born trailblazer and explorer.
He was the first person of European descent to establish an overland trail from Mexico to the northern Pacific coast of California (then called New Albion).
He found a corridor through the desolate Sonoran Desert.Download